Polysaccharides are a form of carbohydrates. This is
a complex form. Monosaccharides join together and create
the polysaccharides. Glycosidic bonds are the binding
force between the monosaccharides.
Polysaccharides have distinctive features. As it is
made of monosaccharides, so they are very big in size.
They are also branched. They are generally insoluble
in water, not sweet and are amorphous.
Polysaccharides may be homopolysaccharides and heteroploysaccharides.
When the monosaccharides that constitute the polysaccharide,
are of same type, then it is called as homopolysaccharide
and when they are different the resulting polysaccharide
is called as heteropolysaccharide.
A general formula that denotes Polysaccharide is Cn
(H2O)n where it may be 200 to 2500. Generally 10 or
more monosaccharides make a polysaccharide. Polysaccharides
are carbohydrates which have high molecular weight.
They break down to monosaccharides when hydrolysis happens.
There is a specific type of polysaccharide present,
known as acidic polysaccharide, which has in it carboxyl
groups, phosphate group, and sulfuric aster groups.
Polysaccharides can be branched or it may be linear.
Polysaccharides may be of two types if divided based
on their function. Some polysaccharides store energy.
Some other polysaccharides build the cells by helping
the structural components.
Some of the well known polysaccharides are starch,
glycogen, cellulose, chitin etc. Starch, glycogen, and
cellulose are the three most common polysaccharides.
Glucose units make up Starch. Starch is insoluble in
water. Glycogen is found in animals. It is storage from
of glucose. Cellulose is found in plants. They make
up most of the plant parts. Some polysaccharides are
available in bacteria which make their capsule.
In animals and plants, the energy storages are different.
In animals, starch is the polysaccharide that stores
energy. Also, glycogen stores the energy in animals.
Starch is a homopolysaccharide. Starch is found in two
different forms. One is amylopectin and the other is
a-amylose. Amylopectin consist of a-glucose. A- Amylose
consists of glucose. It is a linear chain polymer. Both
of these are broken down by amylase enzyme.
Glycogen is another polysaccharide that is found in
the animals. It is mostly available in the liver and
the skeletal muscle. This is the energy storage for
them. It is made of a-glucose. It has more non-reducing
ends than the amylopectin. Glycogen is to be broken
down for use which is done by glycogen phosphorylase.
In case of structural polysaccharides, cellulose and
chitin is the main. Cellulose makes up the plant cell
wall. It is said to be the most abundant natural polymer.
It is available in the wood and cotton. It is a linear
polysaccharide. It is composed of glucose. It has so
much of strength because of the inverted glucose molecule
and the hydrogen bonds that is formed by the individual
cellulose strand. Most of the animals are not able to
digest cellulose because of the absence of cellulose
Chitin consists of N-acetylglucosamine. It makes up
exoskeletons of insects, spiders etc. It also makes
the cell wall of fungi. It is the second most abundant
Polysaccharides are very important for your body. They
are made available to your body through the food that
Zach Thompson is a Glyconutrients Representative. His
clients range from actresses to pro athletes. You can
get a free Glyconutrients consultation by visiting http://www.nutritionalreview.com/Mannatech-Ambrotose.php.